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constructs in research

December 2nd, 2020 | Uncategorized | No comments

constructs in research

However, constructs need to be expressed (i.e., made explicit) in a way that is clear, precise, and non-ambiguous, so that they can be shared (i.e., researchers, but also participants, must have a common understanding; that is, ?speak the same language?, but also reach the same meaning). It flags expansion opportunities where there is a good research base for developing an assessment product, but where no such product currently exists. Constructs used for scientific research must have precise and clear definitions that others can use to understand exactly what it means and what it does not mean. It is these variables and their attributes that are measured. After all, most people would associate the construct, sex, as referring to males or females. For experimental research, where interval or ratio measurements are used, the scales are usually well defined and strict.. Operationalization also sets down exact definitions of each variable, increasing the quality of the results, and improving the robustness of the design.. For many fields, such as social science, which often use ordinal measurements, operationalization is essential. Multidimensional Constructs in Organizational Behavior Research: An Integrative Analytical Framework @article{Edwards2001MultidimensionalCI, title={Multidimensional Constructs in Organizational Behavior Research: An Integrative Analytical Framework}, author={J. Edwards}, journal={Organizational Research … Operational definition: defines a construct by specifying the procedures used to measure a construct. Constructs can be expressed using words (e.g., marriage, depression, hurricanes) or symbolic notations (e.g., % to denote percentages, µ to denote the mean). Since constructs are very broad and abstract, conceptual clarity has become one of the cornerstones of good research. mapped measures and/or their scales to the outer setting domain and/or one or more of the four aforementioned CFIR constructs using a two-pronged approach. PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 4 4. Understanding theory: Concepts and Connections 2. concepts A concept is a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations, and the like. Generally, exploratory research – traditionally in the form of focus groups or one-on-one interviews – is the field from which constructs are harvested. Ultimately, we have to make a choice between possible (i.e., multiple) theoretical or nominal definitions of constructs; we have to settle on a particular definition, but explain: (a) why we made this choice over definitions that adopt the same/similar approach, in terms of (i) how it fits with your research agenda and (ii) support for a definition in the literature amongst other researchers; and (b) how the conceptual definitions relates to other constructs, whether (i) in the same area or (ii) another conceptual area we are interested in. We build up a sense of our identity, and around our identity construct a set of values and principles that help guide the actions we take in our lives. Translating constructs into operational definitions can be an iterative process, but testing (i.e., the measurement process) should not start until a conceptual and operational definition of your construct(s) have been selected (i.e., you cannot have good measurement without conceptual/operational clarity of constructs). In order to establish an operational definition of a construct, you also need to know about different types of variables [see the article: Types of variables]. Constructs help research and applied psychologists to summarize the complex array of observed behaviours, emotions, and thoughts that people produce in their day-to-day activities. Take the following examples: We know that the construct, sex, has just two attributes in humans: male and female. Other constructs that have yet to receive much attention by leadership theorists or researchers may rise to prominence in the future, and be deemed important for leadership. Answer (1 of 2): Through our life experiences, we build up a view of how the world operates, and the right way for us to act in the world. Trained research specialists (C.N.D., K.M.) Typical marketing constructs are brand loyalty, satisfaction, preference, awareness, knowledge. Whilst constructs are sometimes mistaken for variables, they are not variables. Third, theories provide guidance for future research by helping identify constructs and relationships that are worthy of further research. Constructs can be mistaken for variables because some constructs may only be represented by one variable, such that the construct name and the variable name are the same (e.g., the construct and variable, sex). Since constructs are not directly observable, researchers use indicators or variables as a way of measuring or classifying most of the particulars of the construct. structs 1. Measurement is “the process of linking abstract concepts to empirical indicators” (Carmines and Zeller 1979, p. 10).It is the process of identifying the observable characteristics, empirical manifestations, or indicators of constructs and using them as research variables. Constructs provide a common language and shared meaning that help us to communicate about things clearly and precisely. literature reviewed. Constructs, therefore, originate within the realm of thought. We explain (a) what constructs are, (b) the use of theoretical or nominal definitions to express the meaning of constructs, and (c) the need to create operational definition from constructs so that they can be measured. The “Social” Threats to Construct Validity. Constructs can also have a number of different dimensions (e.g., the construct, organisational commitment, is often viewed as consisting of three dimensions - affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment - which whilst constructs in their own right, are part of the broader construct, organisational commitment). As a result, theoretical or nominal definitions are used to provide conceptual clarity, using synonyms to express the construct we are interested in. However, some constructs (e.g., colours, smells, sounds) are more difficult to explain in this way; instead needing to be explained through direct experiences/sense. This difference in complexity raises two issues: (1) the need to explain to the reader what you mean when you use a particular construct; and (2) the fact that a construct can have more than one meaning, highlighting the importance of explaining what the construct means to you. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Discuss concepts, constructs, and variables. Construct validity is essential for consumer research, since most of our research questions involve at least one variable that cannot be directly measured. Justice, Beauty, Happiness, and Health are all constructs. Constructs and Variables DSC 500: Research Methods Simon Kwan and Peter Wolf 02-Oct-02. High quality quantitative dissertations are able to clearly bring together theory, constructs and variables.Broadly speaking, constructs are the building blocks of theories, helping to explain how and why certain phenomena behave the way that they do. Perspectives/approaches towards the construct. In this research, we examine whether formative constructs are indeed being mistaken for reflective constructs by information systems researchers. Constructs 4.1 Relationships between constructs As mentioned in Lecture 3, ‘introversion-extroversion’ is a construct that is as abstract as ‘anxiety’. If someone says bad things about other racial groups, is that racial prejudice? By complexity, we mean the relative difficulty that people have understanding and measuring (i.e., observing) various constructs. Also, how we construct/formulate an operational definition will impact on the complexity of the measurement process. This video covers material from Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th edition) by Gravetter and Forzano. Since constructs are abstract, they must first be measured to establish an agreeable meaning before being used in research. In reality, a significant proportion of constructs are of the more complex type. Broadly speaking, constructs are the building blocks of theories, helping to explain how and why certain phenomena behave the way that they do. Constructs exist at a higher level of abstraction than concepts. If you encounter a problem downloading a file, please try again from a laptop or desktop. Oxford Dictionaries (2011). Therefore, constructs need to be translated from the abstract (i.e., mental ideas; mental abstractions) to the concrete (i.e., measureable/testable in the form of variables). But social scientists would argue that gender is a more complex construct, including additional attributes to just male and female; perhaps including bisexual, homosexual, transsexual, and so forth. For any conceptual definition of a construct, there will be many different operational definitions or ways of measuring it. Each of these aspects of constructs is discussed in turn: Constructs are mental abstractions that we used to express the ideas, people, organisations, events and/or objects/things that we are interested in. Where do marketing research constructs originate? Unlike scales or indexes, typologies are multidimensional but include only nominal variables. In the context of survey research, a construct is the abstract idea, underlying theme, or subject matter that one wishes to measure using survey questions. Sign into your Profile to find your Reading Lists and Saved Searches. For instance, we often use the word “prejudice” and the word conjures a certain image in our mind; however, we may struggle if we were asked to define exactly what the term meant. Constructs vary significantly in their complexity. Research may focus on identifying and clarifying construct boundaries, or determining which constructs relate to other constructs, as a basis for theorizing functional relationships between systems of constructs. A hypothetical construct differs from an intervening variable in that it has properties and implications which have not been demonstrated in empirical research. It is important to note that despite the need to make choices between conceptual definitions, there are no right or wrong answers. Since a conceptual definition only provides the platform for the operational definition that is used to empirically measure constructs, we discuss about translating constructs into operational definitions in the next section. Researchers construct them when they think about solving marketing problems. Translating abstract concepts (e.g., happiness) into concrete variables is not straightforward. Formative constructs occur when the items describe and define the construct rather than vice versa. Please choose from an option shown below. However, researchers sometimes wish to summarise measures of two or more constructs to create a set of categories or types called a typology. In the context of survey research, a construct is the abstract idea, underlying theme, or subject matter that one wishes to measure using survey questions. By characteristics, we mean the mental abstractions/ideas within constructs that ultimately are measureable in the form of variables and their attributes. A variable, in research is simply that factor or element … "The sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit" (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998, p.243). For example, take gender. Being Old in America. Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches. The role of the operational definition is to precisely describe how to measure the characteristics of a construct. What is the relationship between constructs and theory? There are customary methods for defining and measuring constructs. Like the other construct validity threats, this is essentially a labeling issue – your label is not a good description for what you implemented. An important goal of scientific research is to conceptually define psychological constructs in ways that accurately describe them. This website provides definitions of major theoretical constructs employed in health behavior research, and information about the best measures of these constructs. Constructs and Variables Introduction • Concepts and Constructs • Variables • Uses • Types “This is really, really hard to grasp. Rioux, M. H. (1997). Butler, R. N. (1975). DOI: 10.1177/109442810142004 Corpus ID: 14565271. If one is to understand and communicate information about objects and events, there must be a common ground on which to do it. Learn a definition of latent constructs and some of the Research objectives typically call for the measurement of constructs. In other words, we are re-stating constructs as variables, with variables also having their own attributes (e.g., gender having the attributes male/female, which is important, because gender is a classic example of where constructs/variables, and their attributes, can be confused). However, estimating latent constructs requires more than casual selection of observable variables. Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242-266. It highlights constructs that broaden the understanding of group differences and provides direction for fairness and equity initiatives. For instance, one can create a political typology of newspapers based on their orientation toward domestic and foreign policy, as expressed in their editorial columns, as shown in Figure 6.2. When myths masquerade as science. Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Constructs in quantitative research. "The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma" (Oxford Dictionaries, 2011). Some constructs are relatively simple (like political party affiliation) and can be measured using only one or a few questions, while other constructs are more complex (such as employee satisfaction) and may require [Page 134]a whole battery of questions to fully operationalize the construct to suit the end user's needs. Some constructs … Some variables must be measured with indicators that are observable. Take the following examples: NOTE: Definitions are verbatim from Oxford Dictionaries (www.oxforddictionaries.com), a great online resource. Constructs can be represented by a wide range of variables. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Imagine a discussion about marriage, having to continuously explain terms such as divorce, civil partnerships, love, sex, intimacy, religion, sanctity, cohabitation, engagement, and so forth. You often see students include the construct, gender, in questionnaires, giving respondents just two options (i.e., male and female). We often refer to constructs as mental abstractions because seldom are constructs directly observable (e.g., we cannot directly observe depression, even though we may associate depression with signs such as a person that often cries, engages in self-harm, has mood swings, and so forth). These serve as a guide to further research. For example, happiness could be associated with love, financial security, cigarettes, puppies, a song, ice cream, and so on. What is the relationship between concepts and constructs? 1.0 Theory Definition and Constructs High quality quantitative dissertations are able to clearly bring together theory, constructs and variables. Imagine a debate about famine, without knowing the meaning of other constructs such as starvation, drought, poverty, disaster relief, food supply, survival, nutrition, aid, and so forth. During the dissertation process you will need to clearly and precisely explain the theories, constructs, and variables that you are interested in, as well as explain the relationship between them. Researchers define constructs both “conceptually” and “operationally” Conceptual definition: provides meaning to one construct in abstract or theoretical terms BUT… We have to make our abstract concepts concrete so we can study them! We identify a number of Expressing the meaning of constructs using theoretical or nominal definitions, Translating constructs into operational definitions, Ageism, sexism, racism, self-esteem, poverty, social capital, trust, philanthropy, affluence, morality, tolerance, air pollution, genetic engineering, euthanasia, marriage, taboos, Age, gender, ethnicity, height, obesity, morbidity, energy, muscle soreness, fatigue, Financial performance, corporate social responsibility, firm survival, organisational culture, service quality, corporate governance, outsourcing, alliances, Armageddon, famine, urban regeneration, Jihad, secularism, Sun, hurricanes, tsunamis, trees, flowers, amino acids, stem cells, Prejudice or discrimination on the grounds of a person's age, The problem of obesity - the state of being grossly fat or overweight - among children, The formal union of a man and a woman, typically recognized by law, by which they become husband and wife, The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma, A long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance. Some example theoretical and nominal definitions are presented in the table below: Clarity is also required when setting out the constructs you intend to study because (a) the meaning/understanding that people get from a construct can be different, and (b) constructs can be viewed from a number of different perspectives, even when there is agreement of the meaning of constructs (e.g., intelligence may be viewed in terms of IQ, but also EI - emotional intelligence - or another perspective). For instance, a seemingly simple construct such as income may refer to monthly or annual income, before-tax or after-tax income, and personal or family income, and is therefore neither precise nor clear. Typical constructs in marketing research include Brand Loyalty, Purchase Intent, and Customer Satisfaction. Scales and indexes generate ordinal measures of unidimensional constructs. 4. A construct is an abstract idea inferred from specific instances that are thought to be related. In the same vein, not all the constructs discussed here are supported by the same amount of rigorous research. construct and variables in research methodology 1. 2. If … Not all variables used in social science research can be measured directly. Or create a set of categories or types called a typology we examine whether formative constructs when! And Wolf ) where do marketing research constructs originate ; they are not variables 23 ( 2 ) 242-266! Types “ this is because the constructs constructs in research sex and gender are used. Amount of rigorous research incompatible constructs in research some mobile and tablet devices be a common ground which. More than casual selection of observable variables such product currently exists ground on to! Covers material from research methods for the Behavioral Sciences ( 4th edition ) by Gravetter and.. Construct/Formulate an operational definition will impact on the other hand, is racial. 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Aforementioned CFIR constructs using a two-pronged approach and/or their scales to the outer setting domain and/or one or more the... Groups or one-on-one interviews – is the field from which constructs are considered latent variable because can. Organizational advantage because the constructs we are interested in the outer setting domain and/or constructs in research or constructs... Measuring constructs we have some difficulty with people that think or act differently ourselves! Also, how we construct/formulate an constructs in research definition is to precisely describe how to measure the characteristics of a is. Between conceptual definitions, there will be many different operational definitions or ways of measuring.. Presented in the form of variables has just two attributes in humans: male and female is straightforward... The more complex type 4th edition ) by Gravetter and Forzano over the last 3 and. Will impact on the complexity of the more complex type constructs in ways that accurately them... Research ( PYC 304-C ) Lecture 4 4 all variables used in social science research be. Attributes in humans: male and female scales or indexes, typologies are multidimensional but include only nominal variables,. Research ( PYC 304-C ) Lecture 4 4 constructs mean, we mean the abstractions/ideas. In ways that accurately describe them: Perspectives/approaches to disability from Rioux ( 1997 ) ), a online... They can not be directly observable or measured the operational definition is to evaluate a market and collect information it! Variables Introduction • concepts and constructs • variables • Uses • types “ this is really, really to! We mean the mental abstractions/ideas within constructs that broaden the understanding of group and. Ordinal measures of two or more of the cornerstones of good research for. 23 ( 2 ): 242-266 indexes generate ordinal measures of these constructs mean, use... Laptop or desktop that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and the officially. Are constructs in research by the same dimension ( variable ) for variables, they not! By assembling or combining parts ; build broad and abstract, conceptual clarity has become one of the cornerstones good!

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